The Center for School Counseling Outcome Research & Evaluation provides occasional research briefs that summarize the exemplary outcome research completed in the field of school counseling.
The Center uses these briefs to make research widely available and highlight the implications of the research for school counseling leadership and practice.
To subscribe to our Research Brief Distribution list, please visit our Registration Page where you can also view research briefs from previous years.
Please feel free to copy and distribute the briefs.
Recent Outcome Research
CSCORE conducts an annual review of school counseling outcome research for the American Counseling Association (ACA) conference. Below are the yearly related research articles. To view the full presentations, see Research & Scholarship.
Auslander, L. (2018). Building culturally and linguistically responsive classrooms: A case study in teacher and counselor collaboration. Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 12(3).
Johnston, A. D., Midgett, A., Doumas, D. M., & Moody, S. (2018). A mixed methods evaluation of the “aged-up” STAC bullying bystander intervention for high school students. The Professional Counselor, 8(1), 73-87.
Mendez, J. J., & Bauman, S. (2018). From migrant farmworkers to first generation Latina/o students: Factors predicting college outcomes for students participating in the College Assistance Migrant Program. The Review of Higher Education, 42(1), 173- 208.
Lemberger, M. E., Carbonneau, K. J., Selig, J. P., & Bowers, H. (2018). The role of social–emotional mediators on middle school students’ academic growth as fostered by an evidence‐based intervention. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96(1), 27- 40.
Luke, M., & Goodrich, K. M. (2017). Assessing an LGBTQ responsive training intervention for school counselor trainees. Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 3(2), 103-119.
Marine, S. B. (2017). Changing the frame: queering access to higher education for trans* students. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 30(3), 217-233. doi:10.1080/09518398.2016.1268279
Martinez, R. R., Baker, S. B., & Young, T. (2017). Promoting career and college readiness, aspirations, and self‐efficacy: Curriculum field test. The Career Development Quarterly, 65(2), 173-188.
Mullen, P. R., & Crowe, A. (2017). Self‐stigma of mental illness and help seeking among school counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(4), 401-411.
Sargent, K. S., Jouriles, E. N., Rosenfield, D., & McDonald, R. (2017). A high school-based evaluation of TakeCARE, a video bystander program to prevent adolescent relationship violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(3), 633-643. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0622-z
Williams, J. M., Bryan, J., Morrison, S., & Scott, T. R. (2017). Protective factors and processes contributing to the academic success of students living in poverty: Implications for counselors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 45(3), 183-200.
Winburn, A., Gilstrap, D., & Perryman, M. (2017). Treating the tiers: Play therapy responds to intervention in the schools. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26(1), 1.
Castleman, B. L., & Page, L. C. (2015). Summer nudging: Can personalized text messages and peer mentor outreach increase college going among low-income high school graduates? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 115, 144-160.
Harrington, K., Griffith, C., Gray, K., & Greenspan, S. (2016). A grant project to initiate school counselors' development of a multi- tiered system of supports based on social-emotional data. Professional Counselor, 6(3), 278-294.
Masia Warner, C., Colognori, D., Brice, C., Herzig, K., Mufson, L., Lynch, C., . . . Moceri, D. C. (2016). Can school counselors deliver cognitive‐behavioral treatment for social anxiety effectively? A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(11), 1229-1238.
Robinson, K. J., & Roksa, J. (2016). Counselors, information, and high school college-going culture: Inequalities in the college application process. Research in Higher Education, 57(7), 845-868.
Beidas, R. S., Stewart, R. E., Walsh, L., Lucas, S., Downey, M. M., Jackson, K., . . . Mandell, D. S. (2015). Free, brief, and validated: Standardized instruments for low-resource mental health settings. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 22(1), 5-19.
Castleman, B. L., Page, L. C., & Schooley, K. (2014). The forgotten summer: Does the offer of college counseling after high school mitigate summer melt among college‐intending, low‐income high school graduates? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(2), 320-344.
Sibley, M. H., Altszuler, A. R., Ross, J. M., Sanchez, F., Pelham Jr, W. E., & Gnagy, E. M. (2014). A parent-teen collaborative treatment model for academically impaired high school students with ADHD. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 21(1), 32-42.
Belasco, A. S. (2013). Creating college opportunity: School counselors and their influence on postsecondary enrollment. Research in Higher Education, 54(7), 781-804.
Lee, J. H., Nam, S. K., Kim, A. R., Kim, B., Lee, M. Y., & Lee, S. M. (2013). Resilience: A meta‐analytic approach. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91(3), 269-279.
Rupani, P., Haughey, N., & Cooper, M. (2012). The impact of school-based counselling on young people's capacity to study and learn. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 40(5), 499-514.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.-L., Hanson, M. A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 407.
Posthumus, J. A., Raaijmakers, M. A., Maassen, G. H., Van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. (2012). Sustained effects of Incredible Years as a preventive intervention in preschool children with conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(4), 487- 500.
Webster-Stratton, C. H., Reid, M. J., & Beauchaine, T. (2011). Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(2), 191-203.
Dimmit, C., Carey, J., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-Based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Knapp, S. E., Jongsma Jr, A. E., & Dimmitt, C. L. (2014). The school counseling and school social work treatment planner, with DSM- 5 updates. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Dimmitt, C., Zyromski, B., Griffith, C. (2019) Identifying evidence-based school counseling interventions. Presented at the Evidence-Based School Counseling Conference, Columbus, OH
SCARS: School Counselor Rating Activity Scale
The School Counselor Activity Rating Scale (SCARS) was developed to aid school counselors in the gathering of data about how school counselors actually spend their time and what job-related activities they would prefer to spend their time doing. Individual activities or the major interventions of a comprehensive developmental school counseling program (Counseling, Consultation, Curriculum, Coordination) may be examined. In addition, “other duties” commonly performed by school counselors may also be assessed. For information on instrument development and validity please see:
Scarborough, J. L. (2005). The School Counselor Activity Rating Scale: An instrument for gathering process data. Professional School Counseling, 8,3. 274-283.
The information obtained on the SCARS can be utilized in a variety of ways including:
As part of an overall program evaluation report
As a means to educate constituents about the role and functions of school counselors
As a method for educating school counselors-in-training about school counseling activities and how to approach differences between “ideal” and “reality”
To gather data in a research project designed to further understand variables related to school counselor practice or interventions designed to move school counselor practice to be more aligned with best practices
School counseling professionals have used SCARS as they:
Work to implement comprehensive school counseling programs in school districts
Conduct research examining teacher perceptions of school counselor effectiveness compared with school counselor performance
Attempt to advocate for adding a full-time school counseling position
Fulfill a request by the school administrator to conduct a task analysis
Conduct research examining the impact of supervision on school counselor self-efficacy and the school counselor’s work day
Prepare to speak to the school board about moving their high school program toward a comprehensive developmental school counseling program
Collect data to support the revision of a school guidance plan
You are welcome to use the School Counselor Activity Rating Scale. Simply print the 2-page PDF document and copy into a two-sided pamphlet for your convenience. Download the SCARS by clicking here – the SCARS is available as a two page PDF file, and is designed to be printed on both sides of a single page and folded in half.
Janna Scarborough developed the instrument, and she is interested in hearing about how you use the instrument and any results that you find. She can be contacted at email@example.com.
School Counseling Program Implementation Survey
The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey was developed by Dave Elsner and John Carey to help schools conduct a quick audit of their program. With only 18 questions, the survey helps identify key areas of comprehensive school counseling program implementation. Initial reliability analyses on the instrument reveal that the survey has good psychometric properties.
SCPIS – Word document containing the School Counseling Program Implementation Survey
Christopher Sink's List of Measurements & Assessments
Christopher Sink, Ph.D., professor at Old Dominion University, maintains a website cataloging free, validated, social-emotional learning instruments.