When teasing becomes hurtful, unkind or constant, it crosses the line into bullying and needs to stop. Bullying can range from hitting, shoving, name-calling, threats, mocking, shunning others, spreading rumors about them through the use of email, chat rooms, instant messages, social networking websites, and text messages to taunt or hurt others. It is critical to take bullying seriously and to take the necessary steps to address it.
This website has information for educators on what cyberbullying is and offers tips on how to educate children about the dangers of the internet and how to stop cyberbullies.
The Teenangels is a program started by wiredsaftey.org. This website gives information on how to set up a local chapter of Teenangels whose program trains teenagers on internet safety and cyberbullying. The Teenangels then give presentations to other teenagers. This peer to peer program has been very effective.
Cybersmart! Cyberbullying Package
The National Association of School Psychologists and Cybersmart! have collaboratively developed a free anti-cyberbullying curriculum based on research. The lessons are designed for grades 2 -12.
This article explains some of the legal nuances of cyberbullying and provides resources for more information on a wide variety of cyberbullying related topics.
Safe Schools Coalition
The Safe Schools Coalition has published Anti-Gay Bullying: What’s the Big Deal? a fact sheet about the rates of anti-gay bullying and how this type of bullying affects students.
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN)
GLSEN has an extensive list of resources for schools to help them combat not only anti-LGBT bullying, but bullying in general. Included are lesson plans and a kit to start a Safe Space program at your school.
Southern Poverty Law Center
The SPLC has produced a documentary and tool kit free of charge to schools. The film tells the story of a young man who was bullied for being gay and how he sued the school district that failed to protect him.
Journal Research Articles
CSCORE does not endorse any of the following research studies. Instead our goal is to present you with the latest research being conducted. It is up to you to decide if the study is reliable and valid.
Use and Impact of the Wisconsin Bullying Prevention Program Assessment Tool in Addressing Middle School Bullying
Bowser, J., Bellmore, A., & Larson, J. (2019). Use and impact of the Wisconsin bullying prevention program assessment tool in addressing middle school bullying. International Journal of Bullying Prevention, 1-12.
When Prevention is Not Enough: Students' Perception of Bullying and School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
Gage, N. A., Rose, C. A., & Kramer, D. A., II. (2019). When prevention is not enough: Students’ perception of bullying and school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports. Behavioral Disorders, 45(1), 29-40.
School Counselors’ Roles and Responsibilities in Bullying Prevention: A National Survey
Swank, J. M., Smith-Adcock, S., & Weaver, J. L. (2019). School counselors’ roles and responsibilities in bullying prevention: A national survey. Professional School Counseling, 22(1).
Establishing School Counselors as Leaders in Bullying Curriculum Delivery: Evaluation of a Brief, School-Wide Bystander Intervention
Midgett, A., Doumas, D. M., & Johnston, A. D. (2017). Establishing school counselors as leaders in bullying curriculum delivery: Evaluation of a brief, school-wide bystander intervention. Professional School Counseling, 21(1).
A Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating a Brief, Bystander Bullying Intervention with Junior High School Students
Midgett, A., Doumas, D., Trull, R., & Johnston, A. D. (2017). A randomized controlled study evaluating a brief, bystander bullying intervention with junior high school students. Journal of School Counseling, 15(9), n9.
Evaluation of a Brief, School-Based Bullying Bystander Intervention for Elementary School Students
Midgett, A., Doumas, D., & Trull, R. (2016). Evaluation of a brief, school-based bullying bystander intervention for elementary school students. Professional School Counseling, 20(1), 1096-2409.
Training Elementary School Students to Intervene as Peer-Advocates to Stop Bullying at School: A Pilot Study
Midgett, A., & Doumas, D. M. (2016). Training elementary school students to intervene as peer-advocates to stop bullying at school: A pilot study. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 11(3-4), 353-365.
Effect of Participation in Student Success Skills on Prosocial and Bullying Behavior
Mariani, M., Webb, L., Villares, E., & Brigman, G. (2015). Effect of participation in student success skills on prosocial and bullying behavior. Professional Counselor, 5(3), 341-353.
Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model
Kolbert, J. B., Schultz, D., & Crothers, L. M. (2014). Bullying prevention and the parent involvement model. Journal of School Counseling, 12(7), n7.
Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey
McCormac, M. E. (2014). Preventing and responding to bullying: An elementary school's 4-year journey. Professional School Counseling, 18(1).
An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention
Goodman-Scott, E., Doyle, B., & Brott, P. (2013). An action research project to determine the utility of bully prevention in positive behavior support for elementary school bullying prevention. Professional School Counseling, 17(1).
Weight Status as a Predictor of Being Bullied in Third Through Sixth Grades
Lumeng, J. C., Forrest, P., Appugliese, D. P., Kaciroti, N., Corwyn, R. F., & Bradley, R. H. (2010). Weight status as a predictor of being bullied in third through sixth grades. Pediatrics, 125(6), e1301-e1307.
Abstract and Journal Access
Predictors of Bullying and Victimization in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Investigation
Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School psychology quarterly, 25(2), 65.
Authoritative School Discipline: High School Practices Associated With Lower Bullying and Victimization
Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T. H., & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower bullying and victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 483.
Abstract and Journal Access
Bullying and Stress in Early Adolescence: The Role of Coping and Social Support
Konishi, C., & Hymel, S. (2009). Bullying and stress in early adolescence: The role of coping and social support. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(3), 333-356.
Abstract and Journal Access
The Impact of a Peer Counselling Scheme to Address Bullying in an All-Girl London Secondary School: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
Houlston, C., & Smith, P. K. (2009). The impact of a peer counselling scheme to address bullying in an all‐girl London secondary school: A short‐term longitudinal study. British journal of educational psychology, 79(1), 69-86.
Abstract and Journal Access
Examining the Overlap in Internet Harassment and School Bullying: Implications for School Intervention
Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S42-S50.
Demographic Differences in the Prevalence, Co-Occurrence, and Correlates of Adolescent Bullying at School
Carlyle, K. E., & Steinman, K. J. (2007). Demographic differences in the prevalence, co‐occurrence, and correlates of adolescent bullying at school. Journal of School Health, 77(9), 623-629.
Abstract and Journal Access
Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Perceived Family, Peer and School Relations: Commonalities and Differences Across Race/Ethnicity
Spriggs, A. L., Iannotti, R. J., Nansel, T. R., & Haynie, D. L. (2007). Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: Commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(3), 283-293.
A Systematic Review of School-Based Interventions to Prevent Bullying
Vreeman, R. C., & Carroll, A. E. (2007). A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 161(1), 78-88.
Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students
Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of adolescent health, 41(6), S22-S30.
Evaluation of a Bullying Prevention Program
Hallford, A., Borntrager, C., & Davis, J. L. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91-101.
Center on Instruction
The Center is a clearing house of information on research based best practices for instruction to improve achievement in schools.
Learning First Alliance
The Learning First Alliance is an organization dedicated to improving student learning. This website is a forum where success stories are shared.
Promising Practices Network
The Promising Practices Network has reviewed research on programs and curriculums that are designed to reduce violent behavior among children and presents their findings on their website.
In the ADL’s Curriculum Connections, they have a list of books that can be used for bibliotherapy with young children to teach them about bullying. This page also has links to discussion guides and activities for the classroom.
Books & Book Chapters
Parents & Educators
Beane, A. L. (2011). The new bully free classroom: Proven prevention and intervention strategies for teachers K-8. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Cline, F., & Fay, J. (2020). Parenting with love and logic: Teaching children responsibility (3rd ed.). Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.
Coloroso, B. (2009). The bully, the bullied, and the bystander: From preschool to high school--How parents and teachers can help break the cycle (Rev. ed.) New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Coloroso, B. (2016). Cyberbullying: The Bully, the Bullied, and the Not-So-Innocent Bystander: Keeping Young People Involved, Connected, and Safe in the Net Neighbourhood. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Forehand, R. L., & Long, N. (2010). Parenting the strong-willed child: The clinically proven five-week program for parents of two- to-six year olds (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Gordon, T. (2000). Parent effectiveness training: The proven program for raising responsible children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.
Hawken, L.S., Crone, D., Bundock, K., & Horner, R. H. (2020). Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools, Third Edition: The Check-In, Check-Out Intervention (3rd ed.) New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2015). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Horne, A. M., Bartolomucci, C. L., & Newman-Carlson, D. (2003). Bully busters: A teacher's manual for helping bullies, victims, and bystanders (Grades K-5). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Nelson, J. (2017). Positive Discipline Tools for Teachers: Effective Classroom Management for Social, Emotional, and Academic Success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Patterson, G. R. (1987). Living with children: New methods for parents and teachers (2nd ed.). Champaign, EL: Research Press.
Phelan, T. W. (2010). 1-2-3 magic: Effective discipline for children 2-12 (4th ed.). Glen Ellyn, IL: ParentMagic, Inc.
Ferry, B., (2015). Stick and Stone. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Sanders, J., (2017). You, Me and Empathy: Teaching children about empathy, feelings, kindness, compassion, tolerance and recognizing bullying behaviors. UpLoad Publishing.
Sornson, B., & Dismondy, M. (2010) The Juice Box Bully: Empowering Kids to Stand Up for Others. Early Learning Foundation.
Shapiro, L. E. (1994). The very angry day that Amy didn't have. Woodbury, NY: Childswork/Childsplay.
Shapiro, L. E. (1995). Sometimes I like to fight, but I don't do it much anymore: A self-esteem book for children with difficulty in controlling their anger. Woodbury, NY: Childswork/Childsplay.