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Bipolar & Depressive Disorders

Web Resources

Web Resources

Depression and Depressive Disorders

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Depression Information
Publication on depression and depressive disorders. This describes the symptoms, causes, and treatments of depression. Includes information on getting help and coping. A free PDF version can be printed to use as a resource with students and families.

Mental Health America (MHA)
What you need to know about depression, with links to many topics related to depression. Additional information includes depression in children and teens, women, and African-Americans, as well as different types of depressive disorders, exploring myths about depression, treatments, and self-care strategies.

Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA)
The national nonprofit organization dedicated to preventing and treating anxiety, depression, and related disorders. Provides information on depressive disorders, and how to cope with and treat symptoms.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Fact Sheet- Information about a new disorder definition in the DSM-5 that is designed to reduce over-diagnosis and over-treatment of bipolar disorder in children. This diagnosis is for children up to age 18 who present with persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol.

Child Mind Institute Guide on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
This guide outlines information on the new diagnosis, signs and symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and possible comorbid disorders.

Depression in Youth

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Youth Depression Fact Sheet- Understanding depression in teenagers.

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)
The Depression Resource Center provides information about depression in children and adolescents with links to additional information for parents and educators.

PsychCentral Teenage Depression
Information on depression in teenagers, with a list of possible symptoms and how these may differ from adult depression.

Bipolar Disorder

NIMH Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Publication on bipolar disorder in youth, covering many topics such as causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment for the disorder. A PDF version of this information can be downloaded and printed for free from either link (main version and easy-to-read version).

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)
The Bipolar Disorder Resource Center provides information about bipolar disorder in children and adolescents with links to additional information for parents and educators.

Resources for Families and Schools

NASP Resources
Information for parents and educators about depression in children and adolescents. Presents youth depression facts on prevalence, risk factors, symptoms, treatments, and what schools can do to help students.

Teaching Resilience and Sense of Purpose in School to Prevent Future Depression
Martin Seligman’s study and conference speech are reviewed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Two evidence-based programs were studied by Seligman’s researchers and suggest that schools could incorporate these programs to help prevent depression and anxiety in students while also improving grades.

American Counseling Association (ACA) Young and Depressed Article
A feature story in Counseling Today on youth depression. This article highlights the importance of school counselors in identifying students with depression, and how we can best help students in a school setting.

What Families Need to Know About Adolescent Depression - NAMI

The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) has published an updated and expanded edition of What Families Need to Know about Adolescent Depression, a guide for families who want to know about accurate diagnosis and effective treatment options for teenagers experiencing depression.

Journal Research Articles


CSCORE does not endorse any of the following research studies.  Instead, our goal is to present you with the latest research being conducted.  It is up to you to decide if the study is reliable and valid.

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI): What School Counselors Need to Know to Support Their Students

Barbour, L., Correa, N., & Sallee, E. (2021). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI): What school counselors need to know to support their students. Journal of School Counseling, 19(32), n32.

Full Article

Interpersonal Counseling in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness and Feasibility Study in School Health and Welfare Services

Parhiala, P., Ranta, K., Gergov, V., Kontunen, J., Law, R., La Greca, A. M., ... & Marttunen, M. (2020). Interpersonal counseling in the treatment of adolescent depression: a randomized controlled effectiveness and feasibility study in school health and welfare services. School mental health, 12(2), 265-283.

Full Article

Multi‑tiered Systems of Support for School‑Based Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Depression Interventions

Arora, P. G., Collins, T. A., Dart, E. H., Hernández, S., Fetterman, H., & Doll, B. (2019). Multi-tiered systems of support for school-based mental health: A systematic review of depression interventions. School Mental Health, 11(2), 240-264.

Full Article

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of School-Based Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Prevention Programs for Adolescents

Feiss, R., Dolinger, S. B., Merritt, M., Reiche, E., Martin, K., Yanes, J. A., ... & Pangelinan, M. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of school-based stress, anxiety, and depression prevention programs for adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence, 48(9), 1668-1685.

Full Article

The Impact of a Brief Bullying Bystander Intervention on Depressive Symptoms

Midgett, A., & Doumas, D. M. (2019). The impact of a brief bullying bystander intervention on depressive symptoms. Journal of Counseling & Development, 97(3), 270-280. 

The Effect of Positive Mindfulness Training Program on Stress Response and Depression Symptoms in Male Adolescents with Depression Symptoms

Yazdani, M., & Esmaeili, M. (2019). The effect of positive mindfulness training program on stress response and depression symptoms in male adolescents with depression symptoms. Journal of Psychology, 23(2), 199-216. 

Full Article

Preventing Depression in Final Year Secondary Students: School-Based Randomized Controlled Trial

Perry, Y., Werner-Seidler, A., Calear, A., Mackinnon, A., King, C., Scott, J., ... & Batterham, P. J. (2017). Preventing depression in final year secondary students: school-based randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(11), e8241.

Full Article

Exploring the Use of Animal Assisted Therapy in School Counseling: Using AAT with Adolescents Who Have Internalizing Disorders

Jagodzinski, L. (2014). Exploring the use of animal assisted therapy in school counseling: Using AAT with adolescents who have internalizing disorders. Counselor Education Capstones, 16.

Full Article

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder: A New Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Irritability in Youth
Roy, A.K., Lopes, V., & Klein, R.G. (2014). Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: A new diagnostic approach to chronic irritability in youth. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(9), 918-924.

Full Article

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Chronic Irritability in Youth at Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder
Sparks, G.M., Axelson, D.A., Yu, H., Ha, W., Ballester, J., Diler, R.S., Goldstein, B., Goldstein, T., Hickey, M.B., Ladouceur, C.D., Monk, K., Sakolsky, D., & Birmaher, B. (2014). Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and chronic irritability in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(4), 408-416.
Abstract and Journal Access

Reducing Depression in 9–10 Year Old Children in Low SES Schools: A Longitudinal Universal Randomized Controlled Trial

Rooney, R., Hassan, S., Kane, R., Roberts, C. M., & Nesa, M. (2013). Reducing depression in 9–10 year old children in low SES schools: A longitudinal universal randomized controlled trial. Behaviour research and therapy, 51(12), 845-854.

Full Article

Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Brunwasser, S. M., Freres, D. R., Chajon, N. D., Kash-MacDonald, V. M., ... & Seligman, M. E. (2012). Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41(5), 621-639.

Full Article

Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial
Gillham, J.E., Reivich, K.J., Brunwasser, S.M., Freres, D.R., Chajon, N.D., Kash-MacDonald, V.M., Chaplin, T.M., Abenavoli, R.M., Matlin, S.L., Gallop, R.J., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2012). Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(5),621-639.
Abstract and Journal Access

A High School Counselor’s Leadership in Providing School-Wide Screenings for Depression and Enhancing Suicide Awareness
Erickson, A., & Abel, N.R. (2013). A high school counselor’s leadership in providing school-wide screenings for depression and enhancing suicide awareness. Professional School Counseling, 16(5), 283-289.
Abstract and Journal Access

Bipolar Disorder in Children and AdolescentsBirmaher, B. (2013). Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 18(3), 140-148.

Abstract and Journal Access

Classroom Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Reducing Symptoms of Depression in High Risk Adolescents: Pragmatic Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Stallard, P., Sayal, K., Phillips, R., Taylor, J. A., Spears, M., Anderson, R., ... & Montgomery, A. A. (2012). Classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in high risk adolescents: Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Bmj, 345.

Full Article

The Prevention of Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Review

Gladstone, T.R.G., & Beardslee, W.R. (2009). The prevention of depression in children and adolescents: A review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(4), 212-221.

Abstract and Journal Access

Depression and School Performance in Middle Adolescent Boys and Girls

Frojd, S.A., Nissinen, E.S., Pelkonen, M.U.I., Marttunen, M.J., Koivisto, A.M., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescence, 31(4), 485-498.

Abstract and Journal Access

Reducing Depression Among At-Risk Early Adolescents: Three-Year Effects of a Family-Centered Intervention Embedded Within Schools
Connell, A.M., & Dishion, T.J. (2008). Reducing depression among at-risk early adolescents: Three-year effects of a family-centered intervention embedded within schools. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 574-585.
Full Article

Effects of Psychotherapy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analysis
Weisz, J.R., McCart, C.A., & Valeri, S.M. (2006). Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 132-149.
Full Article

Books & Book Chapters


Parents & Educators


Wiseman, R. (2016). Queen bees and wannabes: Helping your daughter survive cliques, gossip, boys, and the new realities of girl                 world. Harmony.

Mondimore, F. M., & Kelly, P. (2015). Adolescent depression: A guide for parents. JHU Press.

Linehan, M.M. (2014). DBT skills training manual (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Faber, A., & Mazlish, E. (2012). How to talk so kids will listen & listen so kids will talk. Simon and Schuster.

Merrell, K. W. (2008). Helping students overcome depression and anxiety: A practical guide (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Seligman, M. E. (2007). The optimistic child: A proven program to safeguard children against depression and build lifelong                             resilience (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.

Barnard, M. U. (2003). Helping your depressed child: A step-by-step guide for parents. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Ingersoll, B. D., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Lonely, sad, and angry: A parent's guide to depression in children and adolescents                               Plantation,FL: Specialty Press. 



Keller, T. (2018). The science of breakable things. Random House Books for Young Readers.

Jones, L. (2015). The princess and the fog: A story for children with depression. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Peters, A. F., & Peters, P. (2015). The Color Thief: A Family's Story of Depression. Albert Whitman & Company.

Cook, J. (2012). Blueloon. National Center for Youth Issues.

Irwin, C., Evans, D. L., & Andrews, L. W. (2007). Monochrome days: A firsthand account of one teenager's experience with                               depression. Oxford University Press, USA.


Burns, D. D. (2020). Feeling great: The revolutionary new treatment for depression and anxiety. Eau Claire, WI: PESI Publishing &                    Media.

Ingersoll, B. D., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Lonely, sad, and angry: A parent's guide to depression in children and adolescents.                                Plantation, FL: Specialty Press. 

Fassler, D. F., & Dumas, L. S. (1997). "Help me, I'm sad": Recognizing, treating, and preventing childhood and adolescent depression.            New York, NY: Penguin Books.


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