Bipolar & Depressive Disorders

Web Resources


Depression and Depressive Disorders

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Depression Information
Publication on depression and depressive disorders. This describes the symptoms, causes, and treatments of depression. Includes information on getting help and coping. A free PDF version can be printed to use as a resource with students and families.

Mental Health America (MHA)
What you need to know about depression, with links to many topics related to depression. Additional information includes depression in children and teens, women, and African-Americans, as well as different types of depressive disorders, exploring myths about depression, treatments, and self-care strategies.

Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA)
The national nonprofit organization dedicated to preventing and treating anxiety, depression, and related disorders. Provides information on depressive disorders, and how to cope with and treat symptoms.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Fact Sheet- Information about a new disorder definition in the DSM-5 that is designed to reduce over-diagnosis and over-treatment of bipolar disorder in children. This diagnosis is for children up to age 18 who present with persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol.

Child Mind Institute Guide on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
This guide outlines information on the new diagnosis, signs and symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and possible comorbid disorders.

Depression in Youth

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Youth Depression Fact Sheet- Understanding depression in teenagers.

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)
The Depression Resource Center provides information about depression in children and adolescents with links to additional information for parents and educators.

PsychCentral Teenage Depression
Information on depression in teenagers, with a list of possible symptoms and how these may differ from adult depression.

Bipolar Disorder

NIMH Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Publication on bipolar disorder in youth, covering many topics such as causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment for the disorder. A PDF version of this information can be downloaded and printed for free from either link (main version and easy-to-read version).

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)
The Bipolar Disorder Resource Center provides information about bipolar disorder in children and adolescents with links to additional information for parents and educators.

Resources for Families and Schools

NASP Resources
Information for parents and educators about depression in children and adolescents. Presents youth depression facts on prevalence, risk factors, symptoms, treatments, and what schools can do to help students.

Teaching Resilience and Sense of Purpose in School to Prevent Future Depression
Martin Seligman’s study and conference speech are reviewed by the American Psychological Association (APA). Two evidence-based programs were studied by Seligman’s researchers and suggest that schools could incorporate these programs to help prevent depression and anxiety in students while also improving grades.

American Counseling Association (ACA) Young and Depressed Article
A feature story in Counseling Today on youth depression. This article highlights the importance of school counselors in identifying students with depression, and how we can best help students in a school setting.

Journal Research Articles


CSCORE does not endorse any of the following research studies.  Instead, our goal is to present you with the latest research being conducted.  It is up to you to decide if the study is reliable and valid.

The Impact of a Brief Bullying Bystander Intervention on Depressive Symptoms

Midgett, A., & Doumas, D. M. (2019). The impact of a brief bullying bystander intervention on depressive symptoms. Journal of Counseling & Development, 97(3), 270-280. 

The Effect of Positive Mindfulness Training Program on Stress Response and Depression Symptoms in Male Adolescents with Depression Symptoms

Yazdani, M., & Esmaeili, M. (2019). The effect of positive mindfulness training program on stress response and depression symptoms in male adolescents with depression symptoms. Journal of Psychology, 23(2), 199-216. 

Full Article

Effects of Psychotherapy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-analysis
Weisz, J.R., McCart, C.A., & Valeri, S.M. (2006). Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 132-149.
Full Article

Depression and School Performance in Middle Adolescent Boys and Girls
Frojd, S.A., Nissinen, E.S., Pelkonen, M.U.I., Marttunen, M.J., Koivisto, A.M., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescence, 31(4), 485-498.
Abstract and Journal Access

The Prevention of Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Review
Gladstone, T.R.G., & Beardslee, W.R. (2009). The prevention of depression in children and adolescents: A review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(4), 212-221.
Abstract and Journal Access

Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial
Gillham, J.E., Reivich, K.J., Brunwasser, S.M., Freres, D.R., Chajon, N.D., Kash-MacDonald, V.M., Chaplin, T.M., Abenavoli, R.M., Matlin, S.L., Gallop, R.J., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2012). Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(5),621-639.
Abstract and Journal Access

A High School Counselor’s Leadership in Providing School-Wide Screenings for Depression and Enhancing Suicide Awareness
Erickson, A., & Abel, N.R. (2013). A high school counselor’s leadership in providing school-wide screenings for depression and enhancing suicide awareness. Professional School Counseling, 16(5), 283-289.
Abstract and Journal Access

Reducing Depression Among At-Risk Early Adolescents: Three-Year Effects of a Family-Centered Intervention Embedded Within Schools
Connell, A.M., & Dishion, T.J. (2008). Reducing depression among at-risk early adolescents: Three-year effects of a family-centered intervention embedded within schools. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 574-585.
Full Article

Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Birmaher, B. (2013). Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 18(3), 140-148.
Abstract and Journal Access

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder: A New Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Irritability in Youth
Roy, A.K., Lopes, V., & Klein, R.G. (2014). Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: A new diagnostic approach to chronic irritability in youth. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(9), 918-924.

Full Article

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Chronic Irritability in Youth at Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder
Sparks, G.M., Axelson, D.A., Yu, H., Ha, W., Ballester, J., Diler, R.S., Goldstein, B., Goldstein, T., Hickey, M.B., Ladouceur, C.D., Monk, K., Sakolsky, D., & Birmaher, B. (2014). Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and chronic irritability in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(4), 408-416.
Abstract and Journal Access

Bibliotherapy Suggestions


Barnard, M. U. (2003). Helping your depressed child: A step-by-step guide for parents. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Burns, D. D. (1999). Feeling good: The new mood therapy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Avon Books. 

Faber, A., & Mazlish, E. (1999). How to talk so kids will listen and listen so kids will talk (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Avon Books.

Fassler, D. F., & Dumas, L. S. (1997). "Help me, I'm sad": Recognizing, treating, and preventing childhood and adolescent depression.            New York, NY: Penguin Books. 

Ingersoll, B. D., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Lonely, sad, and angry: A parent's guide to depression in children and adolescents.                                Plantation, FL: Specialty Press. 

Linehan, M.M. (2014). DBT skills training manual (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Merrell, K. W. (2008). Helping students overcome depression and anxiety: A practical guide (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Seligman, M. E. (2007). The optimistic child: A proven program to safeguard children against depression and build lifelong                               resilience (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.